Tuesday, 29 March 2011

Tutorial Five

Summary of the services offered by YouTube:

YouTube is a popular video hosting and sharing service that was purchased by Google in 2006. The service lets users view and upload video files. In addition to hosting videos, the service lets users rate videos, add comments, and subscribe to their favorite producers (Karch, 2011).

Here are five links to personal occupations of mine:

Soccer step over    Corner kicks  Top ten best soccer goals  Wakeboarding tricks   Wakeboarding falls

Tuesday, 8 March 2011

Tutorial Four: Video production session

During this session we were asked to make a short film  about the letter of our choice. The focus of the session was on planning in the form of story boarding and scripting.  Scripting is a guide for what the actors will say and do while the video is rolling. It tells them what expression is needed in a scene, who they are talking to (if anyone) and where to move on set. Scripts are not only for the actors, they are also used for the lighting and special effects technicians aswell. Story boarding is an illustration of the scene that will take place of a set or cartoon. This is where the writers collaborate with illustrators to make a sequence by sequence depiction much like a cartoon book. The advantage of having a script and story board is so that everyone involved is organized and knows where they need to be, when they need to be there and what they have to do once they are there.

Sunday, 6 March 2011

Tutorial Two: Digital Imaging

How are images stored, transferred and manipulated?
  • Images can be stored on hard drives, memory sticks or memory cards, such as SD cards for digital cameras. 
  • They can be transferred onto CD's and up loaded to other computers or sent via email to people around the world.
  • Images can be manipulated with features on the camera itself such as zoom, red eye, brightness and contrast to name a few. There is also software called 'photo shop' which i have no knowledge of but you may hear people talk of it when they pick up a magazine and comment on how perfect and blemish-less the celebrate on the cover page looks. 
Here are some examples of digital imaging that provide information and recording.
  • News Reporting - Real time footage of the Christchurch earth quake is a perfect example of this. People in the streets when the earth quake hit captured the event on their cellphones and then sent the information to news stations who could then broad cast the information on television. click here for example.
  • Family photos and videos - Communication technology helps families keep in touch because they are able to send and receive digital images anywhere around the world at anytime.
  • Crime scene photography - Police photograph crime scenes to preserve evidence and to help detect evidence which might have been missed at the actual scene of the crime. This is then used against the accused in trials. 
"A new technology is rarely superior to an old one in every feature"
In relation to digital imaging is this statement true?

No - Norman Koren (2005) did an experiment that compared digital and film cameras which clearly showed that a digital camera with 11 megapixel or higher could out perform a 35mm SLR film camera.

What are some ethical issues of capturing images?
  • Invasion of privacy: The Google earth street view saga is a great example of this. "There is a serious tension here, between the concepts of free speech, and open information, and the idea of privacy," says Kevin Bankston, staff attorney with the Electronic Frontier Foundation." There's definitely a privacy concern that an unmarked Google camera van can, and in fact has, captured images of people, whether in the street or in their homes, in a manner that could be embarrassing or even dangerous to them." He adds: "We don't think what Google's done here is necessarily illegal, though a few images may cross the line and may create liability. It's more that they've done something that's really irresponsible and rude to people" (Snyder, 2007) Read more here
  • False representation: an image can be changed to represent what the person wants it to represent. "Scientists are usually considered to be respected sources of information and there is the understanding within the scientific community that data must not be inappropriately manipulated or falsified" (The university of Arizona, n.d.).

How can digital imaging be used in Occupational Therapy?

"Information and communication technologies, such as online shopping, instant messaging, digital photography, computer games and mobile phones, are becoming everyday meaningful occupations for occupational therapy clients. Thus making then potential occupational therapy tools" ( Verdonck, M. C., Ryan, S. 2008). Read more here

Reference list

Norman Koren Photography page. (2005). Digital cameras vs. film, part 1. Retrieved March 7, 2011, from http://www.normankoren.com/Tutorials/MTF7.html 

Snyder, J., S. (2007). Google maps: an invasion of privacy. Retrieved March 7, 2011, from http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1631957-1,00.html#ixzz1FrlZumHL

The university of Arizona. (n.d.). Digital imaging: Ethics. Retrieved March 7, 2011, from 

Verdonck, M. C., Ryan, S. (2008) Mainstream Technology as an occupational therapy tool: Technophobe or Technogeek?. British journal of occupational therapy, 71(6), 253-256.


Saturday, 5 March 2011

Tutorial One: Information Technology and Ethical Issues

The focus of this posting will be around the definition of Information Technology (IT) and Ethical Issues involved with IT. I will also touch on it's relevance to therapy treatments in the future.
What is IT?
IT Definition: We use the term information technology or IT to refer to an entire industry. In actuality, information technology is the use of computers and software to manage information (Schneider, n.d).

My interprtation of IT is that we have the ability to use a computer and software systems to store, retrieve and transmit information, not only nationally but internationally as well. This gives us the ability to play games and save our progress, complete online class work and send it via email to education providers, bank online almost anything we want.
How is this form of technology prevalent in our society?  How common place has it become? 
IT has become a necessity to New Zealanders as a whole. We rely on technology every day, we have cell phones, traffic lights, email, GPS, laptops with portable internet, and when one or all of these things fail or break down we are hard pressed to get through the rest of our day. Companies and net works can crash with a single glitch in their system which can take hours to fix again.
This link shows a blogger with a similar view on technology.  http://www.blogcatalog.com/discuss/entry/how-reliant-man-has-become-of-technology
What IT devices or system do you feel comfortable and competent using?

I am comfortable using my cell phone and digital camera from which I can upload photos to computers. I am comfortable using computers to a certain extent. For example I can and do use word processing but have trouble with formatting of pages.
If the computer doesn’t do what I ask it to do i don’t have the knowledge to figure out why therefore i am limited as to what i can do up to that point. 
How is IT being used in Occupational Therapy practice?

Client notes are kept on computer files as well as hard copy, this enables therapists to see up to date information, past notes of their own, as well as other clinicians

What issues exist around OTs adoption of IT systems and tools? and what ways can IT be used in practice?
In the reading “mainstream technology as an occupational therapy tool: technophobe or techno geek” (Verdonck and Ryan, 2008) they talk about how the internet can be used to enhance a person’s self care abilities. i.e shopping online. There are concerns thought with this type of therapeutic tool because there is a risk of addiction, for example using computer games to promote hand eye co-ordination (games can become addictive).
Here is a link to an article where computer games are used to help children who stutter "intergrating computer games in speach therapy for children who stutter"

Why should we have a great understanding of the use of IT in our practice and daily lives? 
In the future of occupational therapy, therapists need to gain a better understanding of technology because it is a forever changing and advancing tool. More and more patients will be familiar with the internet, cell phones, play stations and these will become part of meaningful activity in their lives. If as therapists we do not advance with technology, become familiar with it and have an understanding of it, then we will be unable to treat our clients with the tools that are important and meaningful to them. 
  • Computer games can be useful tools for treatment of physical, cognitive and behavioural occupational performance components (Verdonck and Ryan, 2008).

What ethical implications arise from the capturing,  sharing and transferring of information via IT devices?

There is the issue of informed consent with websites such as facebook or bebo where people can post photos and comments about others without their permission. this also raises the issue of privacy because in some cases people wont know there has been images and comments posted about them therefore they are unable to take any action against it from happening.

What is Intellectual Property? 
"Intellectual property (IP) is an umbrella term used for human innovations and creativity that are capable of being protected under national law and international treaties. IP includes a diverse range of commercial assets from patents for new inventions through to copyright protected artworks" (Intellectual Property office, 2010).
My understanding of IP is that you can protect the technologies and programmes you have come up with yourself so that others cannot use them legally without your permission, and if they do use it they must show recognition of where they got it. In relation to Occupational Therapy this will protect assessments that people have made or proven intervention technologies they have used. Therefore people who use these assessments or technologies must acknowledge where they have come from and don’t pass it of as something they have come up with on their own. 

What is Social Justice? 

"In essence, social justice is concerned with equal justice, not just in the courts, but in all aspects of society. This concept demands that people have equal rights and opportunities; everyone, from the poorest person on the margins of society to the wealthiest deserves an even playing field" (Wisegeek, 2011).

My understanding of social justice in relation to IT in OT practice is that every client receiving OT intervention should have the opportunity to use intervention tools that are relevant and present within their ADL’s (activity of daily living).
What is Informed Consent?

"Informed consent is a legal procedure to ensure that a patient or client knows all of the risks and costs involved in a treatment. The elements of informed consents include informing the client of the nature of the treatment, possible alternative treatments, and the potential risks and benefits of the treatment. In order for informed consent to be considered valid, the client must be competent and the consent should be given voluntarily" (About.com.psychology, 2011).

My understanding of informed consent in relation to IT in an OT practice is that the therapist has an obligation to outline and provide extra information if needed about the treatment plan they have for their client. For example if a therapist was to use a Brian training program that came in the form of a game, the therapist would have to explain the pros and cons of this tool. For instance the risk of addiction to the computer game.

Reference list

Schneider, L. (n.d.). Information Technology - Definition and History. In Job search tech. Retrieved February 18, 2011, from http://jobsearchtech.about.com/od/careersintechnology/p/ITDefinition.htm

Verdonck, M. C., Ryan, S. (2008) Mainstream Technology as an occupational therapy tool: Technophobe or Technogeek?. British journal of occupational therapy, 71(6), 253-256.

Intellectual Property office. (2010). What is intellectual property? Retrieved February 28, 2011, from  http://www.iponz.govt.nz/cms/what-is-ip/what-is-intellectual-property
Wisegeek. (2011). What is social justice. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-social-justice.htm
About.com.psychology. (2011). What is informed consent. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from    http://psychology.about.com/od/iindex/g/def_informedcon.htm